Diamond, K., & Hong, S. (2010). The educator’s image of a child and the environment they create are strongly connected. Social inclusion infers a proactive, mindful approach that requires action to facilitate conditions of inclusion (Caruana, & McDonald, 2018). When observing an individual child, it is important to focus on the child’s abilities. Gillies, R., & Carrington, S. (2004). Creating an environment that supports the inclusion of every child means each child can be supported to thrive and build a respect and valuing of diversity. 14, No. Inclusive settings in the early years, according to the Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority [QCAA] (2014) sees that “educators strive to improve all learners’ participation and learning, regardless of age, gender, religion, culture, socioeconomic status, sexual preferences, ability or language. • most effectively when their experiences of play build on what they already know, and can take one step further, what is known as a zone of proximal development at a pace that is scaffolded to suit the Australia,  USQ Photo Stock. - good practice in early childhood settings - different perspectives of inclusion. Siperstein, G., Parker, R., Bardon, J., & Widaman, K. (2007). 4, pp. Retrieved from https://qed.qld.gov.au/earlychildhood/service/Documents/pdf/info-sheet-2-principles-inclusion.pdf, Torii, K., Fox, S., & Cloney, D. (2017). The barriers can emerge from a range of issues including personal, attitudinal and organisational. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. A national study of youth attitudes toward the inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Curriculum decision making for inclusive practice. • plan for connection between work and play activities; In April 2009, Early Childhood Inclusion: A Joint Position Statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) was officially approved by both organizations. (2014). Australia, USQ Photo Stock. Collect This Article. Following is a discussion around these myths. High-quality early education: Age of entry and time in care differences in student outcomes for English-only and dual language learners. 3.5 based on 13 ratings . In early childhood education, diversity and inclusion go together like “roundabouts and swings, a pair of wings, fish and chips, hops and skips, socks and shoes, salt and pepper, strawberries and cream, pie and sauce, the oo in moo” (McKimmie, 2010, p. 1). They create valuable learning opportunities for themselves through their interactions with their world and the people in it (Siraj-Blatchford & Sylva, 2004). Inclusive Education Policy. Children’s developmental pathways are also more diverse. Conversing with the child about their abilities, needs, and interests empowers the child and increases their sense of agency. International Journal of Inclusive Education: Vol. (2018). Hertzman, C. (2002). These views have shifted to those incorporating curricular and pedagogic differentiation to support children’s senses of belonging (Gillies & Carrington, 2004). Universal access to early childhood education: Inclusive practice – kindergarten access and participation for children experiencing disadvantage. Development in children occurs at different rates across a population. Do you see the child’s competencies and complexities? Toronto, Ontario: The Laidlaw Foundation. Next: Fostering first year nurses’ inclusive practice: A key building block for patient centred care, Opening eyes onto inclusion and diversity in early childhood education, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. • develop and extend each child’s communication in play; •  when given plenty of opportunities for sensory involvement. 253–276). Both Kids Together and the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilitie… Retrieved from:www.mitchellinstitute.org.au, World Health Organization (WHO). Children learn to transfer their social and emotional skills and understandings to new situations through play and interactions with their peers. Ashman and Elkins (2005) note “inclusion enables access, engagement and success for all learners” (p. 65). Inclusive education has been done many ways. (2011). Educators are key in encouraging children to be independent. Early Years Connect is a website developed by the Queensland Government Early Childhood Education and Care section of the Department of Education. (2008). Australia, USQ. A policy statement intended for all levels of schooling, including the early years, developed by the Queensland Government Department of Education (2018) states that: Inclusive education means that students can access and fully participate in learning, alongside their similar-aged peers, supported by reasonable adjustments and teaching strategies tailored to meet their individual needs. (2012). PACE attitude training, offered in Queensland by Evolve Therapeutic Services, is a valuable resource for teachers working with children who have experienced trauma or neglect (for more information refer to https://www.communities.qld.gov.au/childsafety/partners/our-government-partners/evolve-interagency-services). Bronfenbrenner, U. ), Early childhood matters: Evidence from the effective pre-school and primary education project (pp.1-7). Families of children with diversity have the same needs for ECEC as do other families. There seems to be a lot of confusion and misinformationabout what inclusion actually means. © Photo supplied by University of Southern Queensland Photography is licensed under a, Figure 4.8: Photograph of a staff member and a parent and child. A strong match, however, between the values of the centre and their home life is likely to lead to improved learning outcomes. Monkey business. Questions about characteristics such as “Why is Kiah’s skin brown?” are not motivated by any intention to offend or hurt. Although researchers have looked at inclusion through many lenses, little work has been done to see if there is a connection between early childhood education teachers' beliefs about and supports for inclusion. Figure 4.9: Photograph of child with spiral book. A final important point the Bronfenbrenner model makes, is that the child is not viewed as a static participant. Young children’s decisions to include peers with physical disabilities in play. In the past decade, preschool classrooms have become more inclusive, including children with a wide range of abilities. Such inclusive actions works towards incorporating Article 23 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child which specifies that children with disabilities have the right to special care with assistance appropriate to their condition in order to promote the child’s social integration and individual development. In M. Keefe & S. Carrington (Eds. Every child is unique. Documenting observations of children professionally and regularly, without labels or diagnoses is also a useful step. Access help and support at a school level. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Current understandings about child development and learning, as well as social justice and social inclusion, indicates that relationships, interactions and experiences in children’s early lives have a profound influence on early brain development and future life outcomes (Centre on the Developing Child, 2011; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). The emphasis is on supporting children to manage their own behaviour in a ways that teach and show respect. Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 4(1), 64-79. This backgrounder considers pre-school children with 4. Working with families is viewed as best practice for educators, parents and ‘at risk’ children (DiLauro, 2004; Karr-Morse & Wiley, 1997). This is essential reading for students studying inclusion and diversity on early childhood or early years courses, and those seeking to promote good practice and enable all children to develop to their full potential irrespective of … (pp. Developed nations have experienced social changes, which have not been beneficial for all members of society. Supporting children with additional needs. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Odom, S., Vitztum, J., Wolery, R., Lieber, J., Sandall, S., Hanson, M., Beckman,P., Schwartz, I., & Horn, E. (2004). (online) Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Family Services. The definition of inclusion in the approved learning frameworks for ECE is broader than simply providing for children with a disability. Dispelling myths associated with implementing inclusive practices through sound reflective practice, educator commitment and teamwork have been identified as starting points for successful inclusion. 1). It is important to get to know individual children so that the appropriate support can be offered to them. Parental employment, for example, can impact the child through such things as lower levels of income, higher working hours and increased stress levels. Although this article is relatively simplistic, it gives an overview and introduction to the history and paths that early childhood education has taken. Where barriers exist, opportunities for children’s learning and development can be greatly reduced. Parkville, Victoria: Murdoch Children’s Research Institute and The Royal Children’s Hospital Centre for Community Child Health. The U.S. Department of Education (2003) found that the percentage of students with disabilities ages 6-21 who were taught for 80 percent or more of the school day in general education classrooms ranged from a low of 18 percent in Hawaii to a high of 82 percent in Vermont. Children need the security that comes with knowing that there are limits and that when they need help with their behaviour they will get it. Petriwskyj’s (2010) research extends this notion of inclusive education to include many more considerations, such as the social, political, cultural, English as a second language, trauma-related and economic backgrounds of educational stakeholders. Both strategies can be very helpful for short periods but should not be extended to the point where they become intrusive or inhibiting. (2009). Collect This Article. Some people have failed to benefit from the changed social and economic conditions and instead have experienced social exclusion and therefore poorer outcomes (Hertzman, 2002). One way of achieving this is by defining what makes them different from everyone else. Children like to do things on their own and it is better for the development of children, to encourage them to do whatever they can for themselves. Modelling empathy provides children with a repertoire of examples and strategies to use themselves. A report released by the Australian Early Development Census in 2015 revealed that one in five children who enter school in Australia are developmentally vulnerable in one or more domain, including cognitive skills and communication (Shahaeian & Wang, 2018). A child with special needs may need to have a skill divided into smaller steps before the skill can be mastered. Done in by discourse… or the problem/s with labelling. Speaking of race and ethnic identities: Exploring multicultural curricula.Journal of Curriculum Studies 37(6), 33–652. • combine child-initiated play with adult-directed activities; Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority (ACECQA). Supports for inclusion are embedded within everyday practices. Considering issues of fairness and equity at the level of the individual child and the group and providing appropriate adaptations that allow diverse children to participate in the classroom curriculum is an effective strategy as well (Diamond & Hong 2010). Observations are a vital tool for early childhood educators to build an understanding of children’s interests, abilities, learning, development and wellbeing (Colville, 2018). Gottwald. Early Childhood Education and Care programs are inclusive when they have: • Policies that promote inclusion • Leadership that supports inclusion • Staff who believe in inclusion In order for all children to fully participate in education, care and community, they must have equitable access to programs. A Government priority is that every child has the opportunity to participate in early childhood education (ECE). This history of inclusion has … Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. (2009). Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/more-children-are-starting-school-depressed-and-anxious-without-help-it-will-only-get-worse-87086. Brisbane, QLD: Author. 1-10). Supporting children’s positive individual and group identity development in ECEC is fundamental to realising children’s rights. As noted above the definition of inclusion in the EYLF refers to all children holistically. Retrieved from https://qed.qld.gov.au/earlychildhood/about-us/transition-to-school/information-schools-ec-services/action-area-research/respect-for-diversity, Queensland Studies Authority. A recent challenge teachers in early childhood face is the advent of inclusion. • by revisiting prior knowledge, previously acquired skills, and concepts in manner that reinforces the transference of knowledge from a known context to application in a new context. Gottwald. Children learn through observation and imitation (Meltzoff, 1999) and modelling by an educator becomes a powerful tool in intentional teaching. “I can see that you are still using the spade but Peter did not see that. The educator checks that Peter is OK and then says to Sam. Updated on Jul 28, 2008. From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development.Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Disability is an overall term defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2002) and incorporates three components: 1. There is now sufficient evidence to suggest that peers are not harmed or disadvantaged through inclusive classrooms; rather, they grow and develop as a result of the relationships they cultivate and sustain with their diverse counterparts (Odom et al., 2004). Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Department of Education. Communicating concerns about a child to the parents is often a difficult step. Researching pedagogy in English pre-schools. Figure: 4.7: Photograph of child bouncing. If aides are employed they circulate around the classroom, or spend time assisting the teacher and making adaptations to materials, rather than being off in a corner with one particular child. Odom, S., & Bailey, D. (2001). Fleer, M. (2003). Click on the following link to access the information sheet: Kids Matter – Effective Communication between families and staff members. According to Early Childhood Australia [ECA](2016), the peak early childhood advocacy body in Australia, “inclusion means that every child has access to, participates meaningfully in, and experiences positive outcomes from early childhood education and care programs” (p. 2). (2013). Toronto, ON: Nelson Education. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 8(1), 22-37. doi:10.1080/15017410500301122, KidsMatter. 39 2012 – Observing children. Children make sense of their world through their play and engage in the social world of their peers when they are playing. Children, according to Bronfenbrenner’s social ecological model, will be influenced by, and will influence, their environment and the people in them (Grace, Hayes & Wise, 2017). Connect with culture. High quality education and care is characterised by thoughtfully designed environments that support intentional, structured interactions to scaffold children’s growth and learning. Inclusive environments provide the space for the recognition of gender, ability, culture, class, ethnicity, language, religion, sexuality and family structure as integral to society (Queensland Government Department of Education, 2018b). The next layer of the model is called the mesosystem and refers to the alignment between contexts in the microsystem (Grace, Hayes & Wise, 2017). 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